Most people take the ability to see life in bright colors for granted. They make sure the colors of their clothing match, feel hungry at the sight of a delicious red strawberry and enjoy all the colors of nature. But for some 180 million people around the world, this experience of color remains partially or completely out of reach – they either have red-green color deficiency or blindness, have greatly reduced color vision, or in very rare cases, cannot distinguish any colors at all. This is colloquially known as color blindness.
In people with normal color vision, the three spectral colors red, green and blue are mixed to create all other colors. This process is carried out by sensory cells on the retina called “cones.” The cones work only during the day: at night we actually see everything in shades of gray. However, not all color blindness is the same. Even though everyone thinks it's the same thing, the term covers many different defects. Experts distinguish the following conditions:
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